SGNP’s biodiversity is greatly influenced by elements of the Sahyadri Hills to the east, and over the years, the changes brought about by human impact.
The most dominating habitat-type here is the Forest habitat. Of flowering plants alone, an estimated 1300 species exist in SGNP. Much of the forest here conforms to the southern mixed-deciduous forest, dominated by the Tectona, Albizzia, Terminalia, Holarrhena, Firmiana, Dalbergia, Garuga, Grewia, Adina, Ficus, Madhuca, Caraya, Butea and bamboo compositions. This is most evident in the lowlands and up along the hill slopes.
On the upper slopes and in some of the secluded, narrow valleys and stream-beds, there are elements of semi-evergreen, and also some evergreen flora. The few small patches of true Asoca (Saraca asoca) are magical, dense and deep green always, so striking against the leaf-fall of the deciduous all around, the flash of a Blue Mormon butterfly, the rambling whistling of a Malabar whistling-thrush, the fluty notes of a Brown-cheeked Fulvetta.
Bamboo is quite widespread, especially in the lower areas, and the teak – bamboo forest community with its characteristic bird-life and general make-up is easily evident. The Karvi (Strobilanthes) is a widespread shrub that constitutes the undergrowth of vast stretches of the forest here; this abundant shrub, while visible all through, even as dry stalks during summer, is most flamboyant when it blooms once after every seven years.